Document Type : Original Article


Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, Iran


A micro-grid usually consists of a set of distributed generation resources, a power storage system and loads that can be exploited in both grid-connected and island operations, The use of micro-grid can have many benefits for consumers and for power generator companies, from point of view of consumers micro-grid has the capability to simultaneously provide electricity and heat, increase reliability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the quality of electricity and from point of view of companies The use of micro-grid will reduce the facility for the development of transmission lines and, in addition, will eliminate peak consumption points, which will also result in network losses reduction. Micro-grids can be a good solution for energy generation, considering the environmental and economic issues. In this paper, determining the economic power dispatch of a grid-connected micro-grid system by Stochastic programming is examined. The hybrid system studied consists of wind turbines, solar arrays, hydrogen fuel cells, combined heat and power storage units, the purpose is to minimize the cost of generating power and reduce the cost of environmental pollution using the genetic algorithm in the study period.


[1]   Alonso M, Amaris H, Alvarez-Ortega C (2012). “Integration of renewable energy sources in smart grids by means of evolutionary optimization algorithms.” Expert Systems with Applications 39:5513–5522. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2011. 11.069.
[2]    Banos R, Manzano-Agugliaro F, Montoya F.G. et al. (2011). “Optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy: A review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15:1753. doi; 10.1016/j.rser.2010.12.008
[3]   Bazmi A.A, Zahedia G (2011). “Sustainable energy systems: Role of optimization modeling techniques in power generation and supply—A review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15:3480. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011. 05.003
[4]  Bernal-Agustín J.L, Dufo-López R (2009). “Simulation and optimization of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13:2111. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.01.010
[5]   Bhadoria A, Kamboj V.K, Sharma M. et al. (2018). “A Solution to Non‑convex/Convex and Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Problem Using Moth Flame Optimizer.” INAE Lett 3: 65.doi:10.1007/s41403-018-0034-3
[6]    Fadaeenejad M, Mohd Radzi M.A (2012). “Multi-objective optimization of a stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system by using evolutionary algorithms: A review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16:3364–3369. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.071
[7]      Fadlullah Z.M, Kato N (2015). “On Optimally Reducing Power Loss in Micro-Grids with Power Storage Devices.” In: Evolution of Smart Grids. Springer Briefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25391-6_6
[8]    Gupta P, Bhatia R.S, Jain D.K, Ruchika (2018). “Active Islanding Detection Technique for Distributed Generation.” INAE Lett 3: 243. doi:10.1007/s41403-018-0054-z
[9]  Huang W, Lu M, Zhang L (2011). “Survey on Microgrid Control Strategies.” Energy Procedia 12:206. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2011.10.029.
 [10]   Hussain A, Amin M, Khan R.D. et al. (2018). “Optimal Allocation of Flexible AC Transmission System Controllers in Electric Power Networks.” INAE Lett 3: 41. doi:10.1007/s41403-018-0035-2
[11]    Jiayi H, Chuanwen J, Rong X (2008). “A review on distributed energy resources and MicroGrid.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12:2472. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2007.06.004
[12]   John Justo J, Mwasilu F, Lee J. et al. (2013). “AC-micrograms versus DC-microgrids with distributed energy resources: A review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 24:387. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.067
[13]   Kamboj V.K, Bhadoria A, Gupta N (2018). “A Novel Hybrid GWO‑PS Algorithm for Standard Benchmark Optimization Problems.” INAE Lett 3: 217. doi:10.1007/s41403-018-0051-2
[14]   Kumar Basu A, Chowdhury S.P, Paul S (2011). “Microgrids: Energy management by strategic deployment of DERs—A comprehensive survey.”  Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.116
[15]   Roofegari Nejad R, Moghaddas Tafreshi S.M (2014). “Operation Planning of a Smart Microgrid Including Controllable Loads and Intermittent Energy Resources by Considering Uncertainties.” Arab J Sci Eng 39: 6297. doi:10.1007/s13369-014-1267-4.
[16]   Selim Ustun T, Ozansoy C, Zayegh A (2011). “Recent developments in microgrids and example cases around the world—A review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15:4030. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.033
[17]   Seo J.T (2016). “Towards the advanced security architecture for Microgrid systems and applications.” The Journal of Supercomputing 72: 3535. doi:10.1007/s11227-016.
[18]  Shukla A, Singh SN (2016). “Multi-Objective Unit Commitment with Renewable Energy Using GSA Algorithm.” INAEL 1: 21. doi:10.1007/s41403-016-0004-6
[19]    Widanagama Arachchige L, Rajapakse A.D (2011). “Microgrids research: A review of experimental microgrids and test systems.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15:186. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.041
[20]    Wolsink M (2012). “The research agenda on social acceptance of distributed generation in smart grids.” Renewable as common pool resources. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.09.006.