Document Type : Review Article


1 Electrical Machines Research Department, Niroo Research Institute (NRI), Tehran, Iran

2 Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Increasing loading without comparable change in the size of synchronous generators, causes end-winding force estimation become important. Synchronous generators have been considered reliable if accurate end winding forces are evaluated and taken into account in the design process. The topic based on the current literature is reviewed. Structure of end windings and different analytical and numerical techniques for forces estimation are discussed. The current state of the art is reviewed and more successful developments are introduced. The area of research which needs more attention in the future to advance the subject is identified.


Main Subjects